CIFA Comité International de Recherche et d’Etude de Facteurs de l’Ambiance

It is widely known that the idea of the cosmic influence on our earth life goes back to ancient times. The first concrete hypothesis of the European science about the solar influence on earth processes was expressed by a famous English astronomer William Gershel in the beginning of the 19 century. When compared some investigations of the number of Sun spots with corn price fluctuations this remarkable investigator came to the conclusion that the Sun influences Earth weather and climate conditions in some way including the crop capacity and consequently the price of wheat.

After discovering in the middle of the 19 century the cyclic nature of solar spots appearance and the connection of their number with magnetic activity, the scientific world experienced a rather short period of comparing various phenomena with sun spots. However, in the end of the 19 century the frame of mind of the scientific society completely changed and even reliable facts concerning the solar influence on the Earth were doubted. In the 20 century any data and considerations concerning the sun activity influence on medical and biological phenomena were strongly opposed. The majority of investigators viewed these questions investigating as not serious and many people were sincerely convinced.

A prominent Swiss scientist S.A.Arrenius was deeply interested in cosmic physics. He might have been one of the first who clearly imagined the phenomenological scheme of the cosmic influence upon the biosphere: some processes of the cosmic space influence our environment by changing the parameters of some factor which directly influences the organism. He supposed that the factor had electric nature. [1] .

A well-known Soviet scientist A.L.Chizhevsky found out by carrying out a series of investigations a wide-spreadness of cosmo-biological phenomena and understood that they demonstrate general biological regularity. Many questions regarded by him are actual up to now. [2,3].

Many investigators who did not regard the problem in whole stimulated the development of its separate facets. B. Dull and T. Dull obtained important results analyzing mortality and sick rate statistics in a number of large cities. [4]. M. Takata discovered biochemical reaction sensitive to the effects of the solar activity [5] F.N.Shvedov in Russia [6] and A. Douglass [7,8] in the USA ascertained the solar activity influence upon the trees growth pace (the thickness of cambium rings) Italian physic-chemist G. Pikkardi [9] worked out special tests sensitive to geo-helio-physical disturbances. Soviet hematologist N.A.Schultz [10] discovered the longitude effect of geophysical influences on the basis of the leukocyte tests he had worked out and this helped to define more clearly the physic nature of the acting factor. A famous Soviet entomologist N.S.Shebinovsky convincingly demonstrated the solar activity effects existence in the world of insects [11].

It should be mentioned that nowadays one still has to face negative estimations and skeptic opinions upon this problem. It is useful to think about the possible sources of such skeptical attitude. One of the reasons of such attitude towards cosmic influence on the biosphere is generally clear: although the empiric data collected by several generations of investigators is great it was not still grounded theoretically. In accordance with inexorable way the modern science functions this condition is not fulfilled yet and the correspondent facts are not accepted by the scientific society. Moreover, the negative attitude to the cosmic influence conceptions is in some way was also conditioned by psychological reasons, first of all subconscious reaction to the primitive astrologic myths. It should be mentioned that for the theoretic description of solar-biosphere connections and correlative theoretical models composing there is a need of certain objective grounds that appeared only in the middle of the 20 century and they are to the point to enumerate here.

1. In the second half of the 20 century it was found out that cosmic environment around the Earth is the space where dynamic processes of various natures constantly take place. This became clear after the greatest ever-known research program – International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). Together with this program investigating of non-standard periodical processes on the Sun and in space became the usual main themes of special international programs and many investigating groups.

2. The second part of the 20 century is characterized by the rapid development of biological disciplines. One of them namely ecology in the end of the century overgrew biological frames and became interdisciplined science investigating the exterior factors influence on organisms, their societies and the biosphere in general. For the recent decades within the ecologic direction there appeared such new disciplines as biometeorology, medical geography, ecological physiology and biochemistry, bioclimatology and others. In general, today the scientific society is of the opinion that many exterior factors influence the organism at once. Cosmic space exploring and cosmonautics development naturally raised a question of the influence of super-low intensity factors of the cosmic origin that are registered on the Earth surface as well.

3. Approximately in this period a new biologic science called biorhythmology is forming, the subject matter of which is investigating of biological processes temporary organization. A little later there began active studying of biological rhythms synchronization including the synchronization by exterior factors. Exactly his science contributed a lot to the problem of cosmic influence on the biosphere.

4. The development of philosophic and methodological principles cased on the systematic approach played an important role in the problems of cosmic-biosphere connections solving. The live organism, the ecosystem and the biosphere began to be viewed as thermodynamically open cybernetic dynamic systems. At the same time the development of dynamic systems theory allowed to make up mathematic models qualitatively describing live systems’ behaviour in the course of time and their high sensitivity to the activity of various factors which may perform as operating parameters of the live system.

5. The significant contribution to the working out of solar-biosphere connections problem was also made by the new methods of statistical analysis and computer technologies development that allows to accumulate and analyze the quantity investigations results of a large number of parameters and to reveal latent correlations and periods between investigated phenomena and processes.

Thus at the time being there are all the main grounds for the serious theoretical comprehension of the cosmic influence on the biosphere processes question. Bringing before the world scientific society the question of cosmic-biosphere connections real existence seems to be quite right and opportune and the investigation of biological effects and mechanisms of cosmic factors influence on live systems should become the subject of new science direction – cosmos and biosphere studying. It should be mentioned that the term “heliobiology” suggested by A.L.Chizhevsky at the present time does not reflect completely the essence of the problem. However, taking into consideration that the solar dynamics is the main factor regulating the “cosmic weather” in the solar system, the term “heliobiology” is still used in the literature.

Nowadays the essence of cosmic-biosphere connections problem is reduced to the answer to the question if super-weak physic disturbances of cosmic and earth origin (electric and magnetic fields, electromagnetic waves and their parameters fluctuations in all the frequency range, acoustic and baric fluctuations, etc.) can influence live organisms and their ecological societies and what the mechanisms of such sensibility are (or vice versa, non-sensibility and non-reactivity). Actually this is the question of biological activity and ecological importance of microdoses. The interest to this problem is increasing from the side of biologists, medical workers and hygienists as well as from specialists in chemistry, physics, and radioelectronics. It is proved by seminars and conferences on this problem.

The list of used sources:

  1. S. Arrenius Cosmic conditions influence on physiological functions. – “Nauchnoe obozrenie”, 1900, ? 2, pp. 261-268. (in Russian).
  2. A. L. Chizhevsky. Earth echo of solar storms. ?oscow: “Mysl”, 1976.-367 pages (in Russian).
  3. A. L. Chizhevsky, Y.G. Shishina In the solar rhythm. – Moscow: “Nauka”, 1969.- 112 pages. (in Russian).
  4. Dull B., Dull T. Frage solar-aktiver Einflusse auf die Psyche. – Z.gesamte Neurol. Und Psychiatr., 1938, Bd. 162, N 3, s. 495-497.
  5. Takata M. Uber eine neue biologisch wirksame komponente der Sonnen-strahlung. Beitrag zu einer experimentellen Grundlage der Heliobiologie. – Arch.Meteorol., Geophys. Und Bioklimatol. B, 941, Bd. 2, N 2, s. 486-489.
  6. F.N.Shvedov The tree as droughts annals. – “Meteorologichesky Vestnik”, 1892, ? 2, pp.163-178.(in Russian).
  7. Douglass A. Climatic cycles and tree growth. – Washington: Carnegie Inst., 1919. – 193 p.
  8. Douglass A. Solar records and tree growth. Science, 1927, vol. 65, N 431, p. 220-221.
  9. Piccardi G. The chemical basis of medical climatology. – USA: Springfield, 1962.- 146 p.
  10. N.A. Shults Solar activity influence on the number of leukopoiesis. – In the book: The Earth in the universe. Moscow: Mysl , 1964, pp. 382-399. (in Russian ).
  11. N.S. Schebinovsky Sun-conditioned cyclic mass reproduction of vermin insects and other animals. – Astronom. Collection., 1960, edition 3/4, pp. 165-169. (in Russian).